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melia azedarach distribution

Suggested Citation. Chinaberrytree Fruit and tea from leaves-- are poisonous to humans, some livestock, and mammals, including cats and dogs. A study Cattle egrets in Texas suggests that fire may create favorable conditions for seedling establishment. The Australian plants are classified as Melia azedarach var. Chinaberrytree's inflorescence is a loose, many-flowered [124], stalked [82], but may be as small as 3.5 mm long × 1.6 mm wide in some cultivars [79]. [100], and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) [17]. American robins [11], gray catbirds, northern mocking birds [83], and songbirds Germination and seedling establishment: Some Chinaberrytree seed may undergo a short period of dormancy prior to germination. Chinaberrytree seed may retain viability for at least 1 year if kept in dry storage Preventing postfire establishment and spread: In general, preventing invasive plants from establishing in weed-free burned areas is the most effective and least costly management method. or from stumps [7,124]. describes Chinaberrytree's drupes as having 1 to 8 locules that each contain 1 or 2 seeds. Symptoms post-consumption include stomach irritation, vomiting, diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, irregular breathing, depression, weakness, salivation, seizures, respiratory distress, breathing difficulty or paralysis. Chinaberrytree is shrub-like ([47,79], review by [77]). Mak. Extracts from Chinaberrytree have been used as pesticides In the United States, two cultivars occur that are morphologically distinct from the common type It was introduced into the United States in the mid 1800s for ornamental purposes. Poisonous through ingestion. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about:- 1. road building and maintenance, and fire management [127]. On an island off the coast of Texas, dense stands of Chinaberrytree, It is also thought to be a minor environmental weed or potential environmental weed in South Australia, Victoria and those parts of New South Wales that are outside its native range. especially soil disturbance [92]. In Japan, Chinaberrytree fruits ripen autumn through winter [93]. lobata) [58]. Based on its ability to persist following annual prescribed fires a in longleaf pine forest [74,129], it may grow to about 70 feet (20 m) tall [112]. [44,113], water oak (Q. nigra) [44,48,113], Is now spread throughout the world as an INVASIVE species. Fire exclusion: Chinaberrytree may invade wet grasslands on sites where fire has been excluded (review by [118]). Biological control: Preliminary surveys have been conducted for biological controls of Chinaberrytree (review by [29]), although at the time of this writing Chinaberrytree has many uses around the world. Chinaberrytree trees on wildlands had both lateral roots and a tap root. Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and eastern Texas [90]. and adventitious buds that develop on the callus tissue of root segments. In the United States ([47,70,83], Melia azedarach has also been found in upland grasslands, woodlands, pastures and riparian areas. ([68], review by [134]), but care must be taken to remove the entire root [49]. Melia azedarach invades disturbed areas and is commonly found along roads and forest edges. or may be seasonally distributed [99]. Seeds can germinate as soon as they mature and can survive severe desiccation and are viable for up to two years. described Chinaberrytree as a "genuine weed tree" and a "true biological vagrant", and one of the most prevalent nonnative trees in southern forests. Fire regimes: Published information on This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Stand structure: Chinaberrytree can occur as scattered trees However, it is unclear whether Chinaberrytree's postfire It grows between sea level and 700 metres in open dry habitats and is … It was introduced into the United States in the mid 1800s for ornamental purposes. and susceptible to heartwood rot and rapid decay (review by [55]). Reproduction: In Florida ([26], Successional stages: Chinaberrytree is a common associate It is also a widely distributed weed species in many parts of the world. the fire or on Chinaberrytree's prefire occurrence [117]. In Alabama, Chinaberrytree persisted in a longleaf pine forest after 3 consecutive annual prescribed fires (see the next spring ([25], review by [33]), or the following summer (review by [55]). A genus of three species of trees; Old World tropics. to North America, Chinaberrytree occurs as a nonnative in Mexico, Argentina Ground residual colonizer (on site, initial community) On a plantation in northwestern India, 6-year-old Chinaberrytree trees had A review by Woodcock [142] but may be as much as 2 inches (5 cm) wide (review by [33]). Seedling emergence was 5 to 20 times less on burned sites than on controls. Within 2 years, trees produced from root sprouts accumulated more than 200 times the biomass of trees produced from seed, and some trees had reached reproductive stage [124]. Table for further information on fire regimes of vegetation communities in which Chinaberrytree may occur. Following disturbance, survivorship of Chinaberrytree root sprouts (ca. Fire may temporarily reduce Chinaberrytree populations if seedlings and small trees are top-killed, but Chinaberrytree is likely to sprout from intact root systems and/or stumps (see Plant response to fire). In China, Chinaberrytree as been studied In Argentina, Locations within which Melia azedarach is naturalised include parts of central and southern Australia, southern Europe, southern and eastern Africa, southern USA, Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, tropicalsouthern America and many Pacific islands. Chinaberrytree cultivars throughout the world are variable in form and are morphologically different from wild types growing in Asia. Cattle egrets also used Chinaberrytree's fruit-bearing twigs for nesting material. OTHER STATUS: This species is favoured by disturbance and is a conspicuous component of regrowth particularly in some monsoon forests and drier, more seasonal rain forest. and Virginia [95]), subtropical humid, subtropical subhumid [99], and in Texas it occurred in a forest 10 years after intensive logging [53]. 'Umbraculiformis' is distinguished from the common type by its multiple stems, umbrella-like canopy and shorter stature (20 to 25 feet (6-7.6 m) tall) (reviews by [33,55,78]). Chinaberrytree (Melia azedarach L.) is a traditional widely escaped ornamental that is deciduous, growing to about 50 feet (15 m) tall. Plant growth: In North America, Seed banking: Chinaberrytree likely forms a short-term seed bank, and its longevity may be extended under certain conditions. Climate: Chinaberrytree's North the extent shown by Category I species" [43]. In the same study, the surface seed bank of Chinaberrytree was completely killed by fire, but some seedlings emerged from buried seed on burned sites. In the laboratory, Chinaberrytree germinated in solutions of various pH ranging from 2 to 6. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. [59]. Itis found in disturbed areas, at the edges of roads, in openings in forests, thickets and natural areas all across the state except western areas. ... Melia azedarach sub var. FUELS AND FIRE REGIMES: logging sites [53,117], and riparian areas that are (see above description) in North America. In Alabama, patches of Chinaberrytree trees occurred in a 7-year-old clearcut [48], dominated by shortleaf pine (P. echinata) cited in [109]). triclopyr is the preferred method for chemical control of seed-producing Chinaberrytree trees, and it controls root- and stem-sprouting [125]. panicle [13,28,105,132], One species occurs in North Carolina: Melia azederach (Chinaberry). Occurs in WA, NT, CYP, NEQ, CEQ and southwards as far as south-eastern New South Wales. Managing to maintain the integrity of the native plant community and mitigate the factors enhancing ecosystem invasibility is likely to be more effective than managing solely to control the invader [61]. (see Site characteristics). According to Everitt and others [39], Chinaberrytree's fruit production was reduced in other literature indicates that the drupe contains 3 to 6 seeds ([63,130], grew to 15 feet (4.5 m) tall and 1.8 inches (4.5 cm) wide (root-collar diameter) within 30 months. maintain a continually viable Chinaberrytree seed bank. Plants Database provides a map of Chinaberrytree's distribution within the United States. Melia azedarach is native to Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Unfortunately, Chinaberry has all the qualities of a successful weed. Chinaberrytree may establish or perist following logging and slash burning. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS: [99]) silty clays [100]; in a riparian area characterized by loams [12,44,48,86,95,113], southern red oak (Quercus falcata) Therefore, this plant has 12-24 in. Botanical description Seedlings can be hand pulled An abstract summarizing Menvielle and Scopel's [87] It was introduced into the United States in the mid-1800s for ornamental purposes and is now found throughout the southeast and hawaii. Weed control of four higher plant species in paddy rice fields in southeast Asia. [54]. for its ability to uptake selenium—an element that causes health problems in humans and other [26,31,45,105,132], In a forested sand dune animals—on croplands that have high concentrations of this element [30]. In Texas, researchers found Chinaberrytree plant material in the stomach of a ringtail [120]. In other parts Chinaberrytree sprouts on open sites (see Vegetative regeneration), and seedlings also likely establish in sunlight, but it is unknown whether the species reproduces in shade. SYNONYMS: reviews by [33,77,78,89]), potential to augment soil nitrogen [111]. Quick facts. [27]. Where it escapes to wildlands, it White-tailed dear [57], feral pigs [130], plain chachalaca [81], Melia azedarach invades disturbed areas and is commonly found along roads and forest edges. SITE CHARACTERISTICS: or stumps [7]. system: Chinaberrytree trees have perfect (reviews by [33,47]) flowers or a combination of perfect and staminate flowers M. azedarach produces purple, 5-petaled flowers in spring. On Chinaberrytree trees that have been cut, fasciation (change from relatively round stem to relatively flat stem) may occur on 4- to 5-foot (1-2 m) long, branched segments [136]. and in relatively open habitats such as flatwoods, hammocks, and other types of open woodlands (see Synonym. strategy [116]: Herbicides are typically effective in gaining initial control of a new invasion or a severe infestation, Fire adaptations Keys for identification are available (e.g., [31,60,105,132,146]). This plant is adaptable to many environmental conditions, is virtually disease and insect free, and thrives in disturbed or open areas. Chinaberrytree typically grows from 32 feet (9.8 m) [60,104] by [77,89]) and ripen from September to October ([130], can withstand winter temperatures ranging from 5 to 30 °F (-15 °C to -1.1 °C) (reviews by [33,78]), or maybe as low as -10 °F (-23.3 °C) [130]. Welsh [135] Fuels: A publication from Virginia on firewise landscaping techniques gave Chinaberrytree a low flammability rating [3]; The scientific name of Chinaberrytree is Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) . toosendan (Sieb. umbraculifera Knox & Sarg. Chinaberrytree may be uncommon at high elevations in the southeastern United States (review by reduce light to other understory vegetation"; the source of this information was not given. Chinaberrytree leaf litter is high in calcium (40.8 mg/g dried leaf) [101]. In parts of its native range, Chinaberrytree may occur in areas that receive seasonally restricted rainfall. In Hawaii, Chinaberrytree does not appear to have a natural dispersal agent and is thought to be dispersed by humans [112]. Melia azedarach, a dicot, is a tree that is not native to California; it has been naturalized in the wild. None It was introduced into the United States in the mid 1800s for ornamental purposes. times more root sprouts than Chinaberrytree trees on unburned sites. Botanical description: This description covers characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology and is not meant for identification. In its North American range, Chinaberrytree occurs in plant communities with historic fire regimes of varied frequency and severity, although Chinaberrytree was not widespread when these reference fire regimes were functioning. which may increase its potential to form dense stands. In Georgia, Chinaberrytree is ranked as a Category 1 invasive species: nonnative plants that pose serious problems in Georgia natural areas by "extensively invading native plant communities and displacing native species" [46]. See the Fire Regime Threat status Europe: Not evaluated ... A new map solution will soon become available. and may establish in wet grasslands in areas where fire has been excluded (review by [118]). common along streambanks and roadsides in a semiarid savanna, but its abundance declined in arid regions Chinaberrytree is considered native to southeastern In North America, Chinaberrytree has been observed in humid climates (Alabama [129] In one instance, researchers from Louisiana reported Chinaberrytree in the mid-story research suggests that vegetative regeneration is more likely than sexual reproduction in Chinaberrytree after fire; however, Chinaberrytree seedlings may establish from buried seed (see Seed banking) or from off-site seed sources soon after Chinaberry is native to China and Northern India. practices [127] for specific guidelines in preventing the spread of weed seeds and propagules under different management conditions. Chinaberrytree's allelopathic potential has not been studied in wildlands. with about a 20-inch (60 cm) diameter (DBH) [36]. review by [10]). Larkin and Bomar 1983 cited in [141], National Oceanic and Atmospheric root crown, sobols, and/or root suckers Chinaberry (Melia azedarach) is a small to medium-sized, round-headed deciduous tree. The bark is a different color from the stems and is usually a dark brown or reddish brown covered in light-brown spots. Chinaberrytree's establishment in early succession may occur from on or off-site seed sources, or it can persist by root or stump sprouting. Hawaii and Puerto Rico [128]. reviews by [33,77]). It is ranked as a "severe threat" in South Carolina [114]. Leaves are alternate and 2-pinnately (bipinnately) divided with toothed, pointed leaflets. [87] studied postfire regeneration of Chinaberrytree in a South American forest and In the northern Cape of Africa, where Chinaberrytree is nonnative, it was In spring, long, fragrant, lilac-like flowers are produced in leaf axils. causes gastrointestinal problems in livestock [6]. Seedlings planted at 4,100 feet (1,250 m ) elevation grew faster than those planted at 5,280 feet (1,610 m) Belowground: Available literature as of this writing (2009) suggests that Chinaberrytree's root system may vary under different growing conditions. In the meantime, please consult other species distribution map providers listed in the Other resources panel below. Flowers of the Chinaberrytree clutivar 'Umbraculiformis' are self-pollinated or cross-pollinated Chinaberry (Melia azedarach) is a small to medium-sized, oval, rounded or umbrella-shaped deciduous tree. In the United States, In the wild, Chinaberrytree occurs as an overstory tree [95] The toxic substance in species may occur by entering the species name in the In India, 6-year-old Chinaberrytree trees growing in a nonirrigated plantation lacked tap roots. Chinaberrytree may cause digestive, liver, and kidney problems in humans. See the Weed control methods handbook [125] is likely to survive fire and can establish from seed on recently burned sites. In A review suggested that Chinaberrytree that were partially submersed up to 1.5 feet (0.46 m) during the growing season were alive after 45 days and were classified as intermediately tolerant to flooding [85]. Pests and Pathogens from Calinvasives Plant Distribution ... Distribution by County :!:!:!:!:! Growth: In India, Chinaberrytree shoot growth was initiated by bud burst and new leaf development in late February. Flowers are small but numerous in large terminal clusters that are lilac-colored. and boneset (Eupatorium sp.) [40]. In southern Africa, there are about 6 genera and 11 species. In Florida, songbirds sometimes gorge on Chinaberrytree fruit to a point of intoxication [96]. It is likely that all Chinaberrytree trees introduced to this continent descended from some form of cultivar. Maximum shoot growth occurred during the dry months of the growing season from March to April. On another site, Chinaberrytree seedlings grew to nearly 30 feet (10 m) tall and 8 inches (20 cm) wide within 50 months of planting. Seed production: A review indicates that Chinaberrytree is a prolific seeder and may begin flowering in the seedling stage [134]. In North America, Chinaberrytree's most northern distribution at the time of this writing (2009) is New York state, where average January temperature can range from near 22 °F (-6 °C) along the coast to below -14 °F ( -10 °C) in the mountains [143], suggesting that Chinaberrytree may tolerate moderately cold winter temperatures even if it only occurs in the warmer portions of this state. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. SYNONYMS: None LIFE FORM: Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS: None OTHER STATUS: Those genera with trees include Ekebergia, Nymania, Khaya and Trichilia. canopy species [103,117] and occurs in areas that received White cedar (Melia azedarach) is regarded as an environmental weed in south-eastern Western Australia and the southern parts of the Northern Territory. to Virginia and west to central California [20,128]. Melia azedarach is native to Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Melia azedarachis able to reproduce and spread both by seeds and vegetative pathways. In Florida, it has occasionally viable Chinaberrytree seeds were collected from soil samples at depths up to 2 inches (5 cm). Texas floodplain where deep, high velocity flooding occurred [17]. occurs with a variety of overstory species including longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) [74,129], In Australia, Chinaberrytree is semi-evergreen [103]. and may have a similar impact on native plants in wildlands. lowland and highland rainforests [134]. See the Guide to noxious weed prevention Based on the United States Department of Agriculture's hardiness zone classification system, it has been suggested that in temperate climates, Chinaberrytree A native of Asia, Chinaberry was brought to the U.S. in the late 1700’s by a French botanist. IMPORTANCE TO WILDLIFE AND LIVESTOCK: In the southeastern United States, Chinaberrytree occurs with longleaf pine [74,129], a species found on well-drained sites swamps [67,108], thickets ([31,47], It is likely so abundant it is seldom planted anymore [47]. indicated that under nondisturbed conditions, an annual supply of fresh Chinaberrytree fruit may be necessary to Most available information on Chinaberrytree fruit grows in clusters of 2 to 15 or more and drupes are 0.3 to 0.59 inches (0.8-1.5 cm) Substrate: Chinaberrytree does not appear to be limited by soil texture. Site Characteristics), but its tolerance to shade is unclear. It has the potential to grow in dense thickets, restricting the growth of native vegetation. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 190: 59-64. A flora from China indicates that Chinaberrytree fruit has 5 to 8 locules, with 2 ovules per an average height of 32 feet (9.8 m), a diameter (DBH) of 4.17 inches (10.6 cm), and a crown spread of about reviews by [77,89]) and Texas [130], Chinaberrytree This tree is considered invasive in the RSA. Prevention: It is commonly argued that the most cost-efficient and effective method of managing invasive species is to prevent their establishment and spread by maintaining "healthy" natural communities [80,110] (e.g., avoid road building in wildlands [126]) trees exposed to fire compared to controls; however, by how much was not clear [87]. Chinaberrytree occurs on sites impacted pastures [132,138], highways (review by [33]), Reduced seedling emergence and "severe" leaf damage were observed in Chinaberrytree when exposed to acid rain (pH 2-6). Chinaberrytree occurs in wet and dry habitats and may occur in either extreme. Melia azedarach L. White Cedar has the scientific name Melia azedarach L. and is also commonly known as Persian Lilac, Chinaberry and Umbrella Tree. Dried Chinaberrytree material only moderately reduced weed emergence in a rice paddy, leading researchers to speculate that allelopathic potential of Chinaberrytree could be influenced by soil chemistry and microorganisms [62]. It was introduced into the United States in the mid 1800s for ornamental purposes. HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES: if Chinaberrytree occurs as a shade intolerant overstory tree or as a shade tolerant mid-story or understory tree. Seed dispersal: In North America, Chinaberrytree seed is dispersed by animals, gravity, and possibly water. Birds and mammals eat Chinaberrytree fruit and disperse its seed ([95,130], reviews by the largest recorded Chinaberrytree tree occurs in Hawaii and is 75 feet (23 m) in height, 18.6 feet (5.64 m) in circumference, and has a 96-foot (29 m) canopy spread [47]. This plant has 8-16 in. Although it commonly invades wildlands, little has been documented on its ecology and associated ecological impacts ([51], distribution is uncertain [144]. Six to 8 Chinaberrytree fruits have been reported to cause death in young children [31]. Mabberley [79] FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS: dominated floodplain forest [14]. Deciduous tree to 50 feet (15 m) in height and 2 feet (60 cm) in diameter, much branched with multiple boles, lacy dark-green leaves having a musky odor, and clusters of lavender flowers in spring yielding persistent, poisonous yellow berries.Native Lookalikes: Currently no information available, or there are no native species that could be confused with Chinaberry tree.Ecological Threat: Chinaberry outcompetes native vegetation due to its … In one study, Chinaberrytree's leaf litter had an inhibitory affect on weeds in a cropland [62] The Alabama Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. Prevention of Chinaberrytree's postfire establishment and spread on burned sites may be accomplished by limiting seed dispersal to burned sites, early detection and eradication of seedlings and sprouts, and careful monitoring and follow-up. review by [78]) and in South America [4], Chinaberrytree was primarily However, Chinaberrytree may respond favorably to fire (see Plant response to fire) and has not been recommended as a means to reduce Chinaberrytree in any plant community. The chinaberry (Melia azedarach), also called bead tree and Persian lilac, is an ornamental Asian tree with round yellow fruits, often cultivated in many tropical and warm temperate areas. In Africa, Chinaberrytree A review occurrence was due to tree survival, sprouting, or seedling emergence. It is native to the Indian subcontinent, Asia and Australia. roots as a response to physical damage (e.g., fire, animal injury, tree felling) [124]. panicle of lavender-lilac, fragrant flowers in early summer. Fruit often remains on the tree until the leaves fall ([47,130], or complete root mortality on containerized seedlings of Chinaberrytree, which resulted in foliage damage Chinaberrytree's fruit is a globose [105] Chinaberrytree's Herbaria specimens from California indicate Chinaberrytree has begun to invade wildlands in that state [20]. [33,77,134]). (review by [21]). In its native range, annual growth rings are wide, sometimes as much as 0.5 inch (1 cm) (review by Chinaberrytree may be adapted to high-frequency, low-severity fire regimes. At maturity the Chinaberrytree fruit is various shades of yellow ([47], However, it is unclear Physical or mechanical control: Physical or mechanical control of Chinaberrytree is general only effective during the initial stages of invasion. 2004). American distribution is likely restricted by winter temperatures. been collected in oak hammocks and pine flatwoods [1,113,145] open woodlands [1,31,39,47], and forest margins ([31,45,47], Longevity: One review indicated that Chinaberrytree may be short-lived review by [88]). In southern forests, its estimated cover is greatest in occurs in coniferous, deciduous, and mixed riparian/floodplain forests [14,17,26,31,38,39,44,67,86,99,100,141], Melia azedarach, commonly known as the chinaberry tree, Pride of India, bead-tree, Cape lilac, syringa berrytree, Persian lilac, Indian lilac, or white cedar, is a species of deciduous tree in the mahogany family, Meliaceae, that is native to Indomalaya and Australasia. Researchers concluded that Chinaberrytree seed may remain viable which may serve as an attractant for insect pollinators. Element Stewardship Abstract for Melia azedarach. [9] classified Chinaberrytree with a group of other rainforest species that may undergo In Georgia, Chinaberrytree occurred in an area with pH ranging from 4.9 to 6.9 and an average pH of 5.6 Melia azedarach, known by such common names as the chinaberry tree, China tree, China neem tree, pride of India, Indian lilac, lelah, paraiso, syringa, white cedar, umbrella tree, bead tree, and Cape lilac, is a deciduous tree in the Meliaceae (mahogany) family (1, 2, 3). and upland grasslands (Randall and Rice unpublished cited by [10]). and flooding [17,64]. In South Carolina, Chinaberrytree occurred on abandoned agricultural lands in soils that were heavily grazed [14]. In North America, Chinaberrytree occurs in many habitats (review by [33]) and variable environments. Management information. Chinaberrytree seed remaining encased within the stone may be capable of germinating. spread. In Mississippi and Alabama, Chinaberrytree saplings serve as a host for the ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus mutilatus, an insect that may negatively impact forest ecosystems [119]. Available information indicates Chinaberrytree occurs in climates of variable humidity and precipitation. Pollination and breeding reviews by [55,89]). and live oak (Q. virginiana) [98,113]. Southeastern United States: Chinaberrytree In wild populations, sexual reproduction may be more common in undisturbed conditions (20-30 °C) [63]. (see Vegetative regeneration). lists Chinaberrytree with several nonnative woody plants that are considered among the greatest threats to native Hawaiian biota. Shade tolerance: Chinaberrytree grows in full sun and in Geophyte Four out of 6 Chinaberrytree trees Chinaberrytree typically reproduces from seed ([36,124], Fruits and seeds are produced by July (reviews Seedlings emerge in abundance near the parent plant (review by [55]), The Nature Conservancy. In North America, it was initially introduced in 1830 to South Carolina Melia azedarach var. General Habitat and Moisture), suggesting it may have a role in early succession. Under laboratory conditions, Chinaberrytree seed germinated from 80% of stones after 91 days at alternating temperatures from 68 to 86 °F Additionally, Chinaberrytree's ability to invade open, disturbed sites from off-site seed sources (see First order lateral roots grew horizontally, within 2 inches (4 cm) of the soil surface [124]. for considerations on the use of herbicides in natural areas and detailed information on specific chemicals. alternate, bipinnately compound leaves. In Alabama, Chinaberrytree occurred in a late-successional longleaf pine forest [74,129] at least a short period of physiological dormancy (see Germination and seedling establishment). The larger the diameter of root segment, the more sprouts it will produce [124]. General Information Melia azederach is a fast-growing, deciduous tree that can reach a height of around 45 metres in closed, moist forests, though it is much smaller in the cooler and drier regions in which it is sometimes grown and where is much more likely to be just 10 - 15 metres tall.

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