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spun yarn properties

Like synthetic yarns they can be set by autoclaving, though the details of steaming conditions are different. Ring spinning is a slower, more expensive system that is capable of spinning strong yarns in a range of sizes or fineness. However, to meet product demands, it may be necessary to twist two or more single yarns to produce plied yarns (Fig. Thick heavy wool yarns having little twist are not amenable to twist setting, but the integrity of the loops or tufts can be provided by felting the yarns. The number of plies inform the name of the yarn, such as 3-ply yarn. Warm (not slippery) 6. MOY, medium orientated yarn, spin speed around 2000 m/min. Felting is achieved when the hot, wet yarns are subjected to mechanical action. The worsted process involves combing the fibres to give this better alignment. Yarn imperfection (neps, thick and thin places) on the other hand is an important yarn parameter which affects yarn and fabric processing, and quality parameter. The somewhat random fibre orientation in woollen yarns facilitates the setting of twist. Principle of two-for-one twister (Horrocks & Anand, 2000). They tend not to slip as … This is because the tensile properties of the filament yarn generate the bending tension and, together with the linear density of the filament yarn and the amount of wraps per unit length, produce the geometrical configuration of the fibrous core and the inter-fibre frictional forces within the core and between the surface of the core and the filament itself. Are absorbent 4. The linear density (count) of the spun yarn is determined not by the diameter of the spinneret holes but by the throughput of the polymer melt and the speed at which the continuous filament yarn is wound. The loops produced by his yarn show high loop shape factor, hence giving better functional and aesthetic properties to the terry fabric. Fibers and Polymers, 9(1), 92-96. A coarse filament is generally recommended for sewing threads and industrial yarns (Taub, 1980). POY, partially orientated yarn, spin speed around 3500–5200 m/min. The properties of yarns and fabrics depend largely on the properties of the constituent fibers. Spun yarn is the yarn of choice in many woven and knitted fabric products. The plied yarns incur additional processing costs as well as constituent yarns needs to be finer to match the linear density of single yarn. With regard to the physical properties of yarns, the breaking stress of Hanji paper yarn was lower than those of the cotton yarn and the core spun yarn, but the paper yarn maintained a relatively high breaking strain. Moreover, POY could be subjected to simultaneous draw texturing, without the need for any pre-draw process, a point that is discussed in Chapter 2. Comparison between wrap yarns and two-fold ring spun yarns: breaking elongation. In this research, core‐spun yarns with an acrylic sheath fiber and a nylon flat core have been produced on the Ring, SIRO, and Solo spinning systems and the effects of some factors were investigated. A textile yarn is an assembly of substantial length and relatively small cross section of fibers and/or filaments with or without twist”. 1.4). The spun yarns are single strands, apart from twisted-spun and self-twisted yarns, and are often used as single yarn for common textile and clothing application. The plying process consists of assembly winding and subsequent twisting. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Loft and bulk depend on size and twist 7. Feed yarn property comparisons; LOY, POY and drawn polyester17, X. Gong, ... Y. Zhou, in High-Performance Apparel, 2018. The usual length of the staple of any kind, such as wool, ramie, or any type of synthetic fiber for spinning should be less than 7”. The common methods to impart twist are ring-twister, up-twister, and two-for-one twister. Prediction of Yarn Hairiness and Unevenness. Mono filaments are filament yarns composed of one single filament. Little of the early LOY spin speeds are used today, mainly due to the following: Originally, within the spinning process, a heated metallic grid system was used to form a polymer melt pool, suitable for extrusion (Fig. The Hanji combination yarn has been improved the weaving ability by complementing the tensile strength of Hanji paper yarn. The yarn has a bulky and crimped appearance though under tension it is lean and smooth. 3.21). Pre-processing results in the formation of a product consisting of disjoint fibre tufts each only about 1 g in weight. The ring-twister uses a traveler on a ring to add one turn for each rotation of traveler. 1.8) within the quenching zone. Crepe and textured surface may be created from unbalanced yarns. Sorting. The properties of a textile governing its conformation to a technical specification are the functions of the yarn network, thickness, and mass. From the extruder exit, the melt is fed, under controlled temperature and pressure, to the spinning beam. Jitendra Pratap Singh, Swadesh Verma, in Woven Terry Fabrics, 2017. This is the property commonly measured as the variation in mass per unit length along the yarn. The properties of the wrapper filament are the main factor that governs the yarn properties. Ceramic applicator for metered spin finish. (Photo supplied by RPE Technologies GmbH, Germany.19). These yarns can be produced at a higher rate. The plied and cabled yarns are also known as folded and corded yarns, respectively. 2.2 Fiber length versus yarn count / rotor-spun yarn / Cotton 100% As expected, the elongation of the wrap yarns was lower due to their specific structure (Fig. [12] Demiryürek, O.; & Koç, E. (2009). Short fibers twisted into continuous strand, has protruding ends 1. Wool yarns may be continuously scoured and set in coil form on the WRONZ Twistset machine. Spin-staple yarns consist of staple fibers assembled and bound together by various means (usually twist) to produce the … 1.9). Spun yarn is usually very fuzzy, providing the wearer with warmth. Spun yarns have a hairy surface, are more uneven in appearance, have lower luster, are softer, and more absorbent. 3.23) withdrawn yarn is passed through the center of the package and each rotation of the spindle inserts two twists. Spun yarns are produced principally on the semi-worsted or woollen systems, although the worsted system is used for some fine yarns destined to be woven on face-to-face machinery. There are two methods employed: Reduction by division. Yarns can be made either from short staple length fibers or from filament fibers. Comparison between wrap yarns and two-fold ring spun yarns: tenacity. Folded yarns are generally stronger than single yarns as any weak places in the single yarns will be less of a problem in the combined yarn. The characteristics of yarn differ depending on the type of material used to create the yarn. Coarser fabric is formed by rotor yarn. Modified hole cross-sections can be used for making different filament cross-sections, e.g. Comparison of Artificial Neural Network and Linear Regression Models for Prediction of Ring Spun Yarn Properties. Most of rotor yarn count is below 20’s but highest yarn count may be 40’s . This is usually performed by a carding process which separates fibre tufts into individual fibres and places them parallel to each other resulting in a carded web; this web then is transformed into a sliver (in cotton spinning) or top (in wool spinning). Dull, fuzzy look 2. Yarn structure is primarily determined by the spinning process. Wrap spun yarns demonstrate several advantages in comparison with two-fold worsted and semi-worsted yarns. Comparison between wrap yarns and two-fold ring spun yarns: twist liveliness, TL. G.K. Tyagi, in Advances in Yarn Spinning Technology, 2010. Filtration media can typically be particulate, e.g. However, the twist levels decrease the bulkiness of yarns and increase irregularity and twist liveliness. On exiting the beam, the melt is distributed to a number of spinning gear pumps that accurately feed the polymer to spin pack assemblies, which comprise filtration medium and the spinnerets (Fig. Joints that satisfactorily pass through the tufting elements are routinely produced by air splicing or fusion splicing. Up to a certain limit, higher amount of twist ensures high strength and vice versa. Short fibers twisted into continuous strand, has protruding ends. All natural fibres follow a similar basic routine of conversion to spun yarn which includes four major stages although man-made fibres do not require the cleaning which is necessary for natural fibres. This research investigates relationships between ring-spun yarn quality and fiber properties (measured using the High Volume Instrument (HVI) and Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS)) given additional information on harvest method and cultivar. Worsted-spun yarns are smoother and more lustrous than woollen-spun yarns. Raw White Yarn. Spun yarns are produced by placing a series of individual fibres or filaments together to form a continuous assembly of overlapping fibres, usually bound together by twist. Rotor yarn is coarser than carded or combed yarn. Ringspun yarns produce high quality and are mainly produced in the fine (60 Ne, 10 tex) to medium count (30 Ne, 20 tex) range, with a small amount produced in the coarse count (10 Ne, 60 tex) range. This is necessary to ensure uniformity of the product by eliminating variations between different sources of fibres or in the case of man-made fibres between different production runs. Expert ID: 721881 United Kingdom Request Expert. Characteristics of Spun Yarns and Filament Yarns Yarns can be made either from short staple length fibers or from filament fibers. Both natural and man-made fibres are delivered to the spinning mill in bales weighing on average some 200 kg which contain very closely packed fibres. Mass irregularity and imperfections: Another important quality parameter of the yarn is its mass unevenness along its length. Smooth Ring Spun Polyester Raw White Yarn On Paper Cone For Sewing Machine. Early melt spinning process using heated metallic grid to melt polymer. Wool pile yarns are normally set by boiling in water, namely by hank (skein) dyeing. However, according to the spinning system used, the yarn structure and properties can be varied considerably to alter packing, surface, and mechanical properties. This is a largely manual operation performed by highly skilled personnel. According to the performed statistical analysis, there is a significant difference between ring - spun yarn properties and each of the pnuematic compact spun yarns. Irregular yarns tend to be weaker than filament yarns. The friezé wool carpet is a structure that has retained its popularity in the UK over many decades and the style is now widely used in synthetic carpets. The yarn has low hairiness. Reduction of strand thickness. From: Handbook of Textile and Industrial Dyeing, 2011. Thermoplastic melt-spun yarns comprise long molecular chains of polymers of high molecular weights. Staple, or spun, yarn is produced from short-length fibers called staple. Of equal importance is the need to ensure optimal radial pressure on the core by the wrapping filament. Relative conversion costs move in favour of the semi-worsted system as yarn linear densities become finer. 1.6). One twist is inserted between the package and spindle, and the second between spindle and take-up rollers. Twist insertion. C. Atkinson, in False Twist Textured Yarns, 2012. However, there exist some rather important differences in the internal structures of the yarns, especially in fibre contiguity. 13.11). These molecules are also randomly cross-linked, through chemical- and polar-bonding, with adjacent molecular chains, creating a largely amorphous molecular structure. Spun yarns may contain a single type of fibre, or be a … Wrap spun yarns consist of two component yarns, with a core of parallel, untwisted staple fibres and a binder wrap of either a filament yarn or staple fibres on the outside. This early system was prone to polymer decomposition, inhomogeneity and discolouration, and throughput speeds were limited. The properties of rotor spun yarns are determined by the type of the machine used, on the speeds and setting employed, but the following indicates the general properties. There are two types of yarns, i.e., spun yarns and filamentous yarns. In fact, each spinning process tends to produce a distinctive yarn structure. The absence of twist in the core of wrap yarns leads to lower elongation at break, compared to ring spun yarns. Spun yarn is made by twisting staple fibres together to make a cohesive thread, or "single." 1.7). Spun yarns and filament yarns are quite different in terms of aesthetics, structure and performance. Twelve position SPT interlacing jet for spinning processes. Butcher, in High-Performance Apparel, 2018. The degrees of orientation at which the molecules lie to the filament axis is influenced by the melt-spinning speed. Sliver is a rope-like product containing thousands of fibres in any cross-section. Expert in Nonwovens and Spun Yarn Technology and Fabric Properties. These differences in internal structures are reflected in different performance characteristics. 3. Figure 13.9 shows that the twistless core of the wrap yarns gave very low values of twist liveliness, compared to the ring yarns, though the increase of wraps led to very slight increases in liveliness. Unconventional systems such as wrap spinning, the PLYfiL process of Suessen, and core spinning for exceptionally heavy linear densities are used to a more limited extent. leading to improved mechanical properties of the yarn. The most common causes of stoppages in tufting are poor yarn joints, knots, and yarn faults. The warp yarns are the yarns with the highest twist. Formation of a continuous filament yarn; extrusion from a spinneret into the air quenching zone. They had, therefore, to be subjected to a subsequent draw process to stabilise the yarn within a certain time-frame after spinning. Study on the Influence of Fiber Properties on Yarn Imperfections in Ring Spun Yarns: J. Ochola, J. Kisato, L. Kinuthia, J. Mwasiagi and A. Waithaka: Abstract: Fiber to yarn conversion process has been affected by several factors which include properties of raw material, level of technology, machinery and skill of machine operators. Soil readily 5. 1.6. For example, some sewing threads are cabled to attain maximum strength in conjunction with reduced irregularity, stretch, and liveliness. Spun Yarn 1. 13.10. 1.5) are produced by cutting the solidified strands of extruded polymer from the polymerisation process (although continuous polymerisation-spinning processes are sometimes used). (BS) Developed by Therithal info, Chennai. Continuous filament yarns are used either as textured or as core spun yarns. Many researchers focused to compare siro yarn properties or structure with properties of others yarns e.g. 13.9. The properties of cotton spun yarn are mainly depends on fiber quality, amount of twist insertion and different process parameters. Due to their higher bulkiness, wrap yarns may be preferred to ring spun yarns in order to lower production costs during weaving and knitting. Yarns made from long length filament fibers and fabrics are like silk. This involves the use of a drawing frame which performs drafting by a series of rollers rotating at progressively increased speeds. Certainly, there has been no definitive yarn development that can fully replace folded ring spun yarn production, but every technology that offers alternatives to these yarns (like Sirospun, Solospun or wrap spinning) is the subject of commercial interest and product development. The spinning of fine worsted yarns necessitates a higher level of twist in order to reach the required yarn strength. Ring spinning is a comparatively expensive process because of its slower production speeds and the additional processes (roving and winding) required for producing ring spun yarns. If handled carefully, they are mostly used as pile warp. Constant melt pressure is maintained by automatic regulation of the extruder speed. Surface fibre wrapping is carried out by hollow spindle wrap spinning. In general, spun yarns of either single or blended fibers are the major building materials in woven fabrics. Indeed, the strength of wrap yarns can be controlled through the wrapping pitch, and their evenness is similar to or even better than the evenness of ring spun yarns (due to the high velocity of the drafting system). The 40 tex wrap yarns were made on the Yantra PKVE (Prenomit) spinning machine at 150, 250, 350, 450 and 550 tpm, while 20 × 2 tex ring spun yarns were spun at 550 tpm and ply-twisted at 570 tpm. The rotation of the spindle creates a yarn balloon and imparts one turn per each turn of the spindle, and the yarn is collected onto a package at a constant rate. It is basic and important one, since it can influence so many other properties of the yarn and of fabric made from it [6]. On drawing, and in some cases also applying heat to the POY, the molecular structure becomes more orientated and there is a large increase in the structured or ‘crystalline’ regions of the chains (Fig. This operation is required in wool spinning because different parts of the fleece contain fibres of different length and thickness. In addition to the speed at which yarns are spun, the spinning system also affects yarn properties such as uniformity and strength. Spun yarns and filament yarns are quite different in terms of aesthetics, structure and performance. The terms used to describe the spun yarns refer to spin speeds: LOY, low orientated yarn, spin speed around 1200 m/min. 13.10). Sewing threads are folded as they are required to be uniform in diameter and to have no weak places. Spun yarns do, however, tend to pill more than filament yarns. Blending. The uniformity of the wrapper filament affects the evenness of the composite yarn. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Majumdar, Mukhopadhyay, Yadav, and Kumar Mondal (2011) studied the properties of ring-spun yarns made from cotton and regenerated bamboo cellulosic fibres and their blends. 3.22) can be produced by twisting two or more plied yarns together, usually for technical applications. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. This type of yarn has very limited application in the field of terry fabrics because of their poor working on the loom. Yarns made from short length fibers and the fabrics are like cotton and wool. Prior to melt spinning, polymer chips (Fig. trilobal or multi-lobal, which affect reflected light and hence the lustre of the yarn. During formation of the rotor yarns, some fibres come in contact with the yarn as it is exiting the rotor. Drafting is combined with doubling (assembling a number of slivers parallel to each other) where doubling increases the thickness and improves uniformity whereas drafting reduces the sliver thickness but increases its irregularity. useable mechanical properties for a textile yarn (Table 1.1). This is attributed to the different interactions between the fibre properties and the mechanism of yarn formation when different types of cotton are used. It is shown that the percentage reduction in strength of open-end-spun yarns compared with that of ring-spun yarns can be minimized by spinning them to coarser counts from shorter cottons. Spun yarns are less lustrous and generally softer in terms of handle than filament yarns. Effect of Process variables in Ring Core-spun yarn properties. Request A Quote Yarns can be made either from short staple length fibers or from filament fibers. sand or metal powder, or metallic meshes or webs, and their make-up and composition is critical for desired operating melt pressures to be maintained and for pressure consistency between spinning positions. The wrap provides cohesion to the staple fibre core by radial pressures along the wrap helix. Figures 13.9 to 13.11 compare the properties of wrap spun yarns with those of worsted ring spun yarns (Angelova 2001). Table 1.1. The requirements of fabrics for home textiles (such as curtains and upholstery, for example) are drape and esthetics which usually include strength and durability. This section reviews some of these properties and how they are influenced by fiber and yarn properties. Stainless steel spun yarn is sometimes used when pure stainless steel yarns cannot be directly applied to the material, such as BCF yarns or polypropylene tapes. The required number of single strands is combined in the assembly winding step for the twisting operation. The plied yarn is more stable, more round, less hairy, more uniform, and stronger than an equivalent single yarn. The technology was superseded by more modern screw-extruder polymer melt feeds. The physical and mechanical properties of a fiber, as the unit cell of a textile material, clearly contribute to a fabric's mechanical properties. The strength of the wrap yarns was quite similar to that of the ring spun yarns (Fig. Spun yarns are hairy while filament yarns are smooth. Elongation and breaking strength are two important quality attributes of any spun yarn. The properties of wrap spun yarns could be qualified as very similar to those of ring spun yarns (Angelova 2003). A monofilament will wrap round the core fibres like a wire spring, whereas a multifilament gives a ribbon wrap structure (Steiner, 1983). There are two types of yarns, i.e., spun yarns and filamentous yarns. The use of textiles for apparel, home furnishing, and industrial/technical applications depends on a unique combination of required properties. If filaments are used to make yarns they may be either multifilament or monofilament . Filament yarns in the medium-to-fine count range are used in fabrics for apparel, and those in the very fine count range are more appropriate for hosiery and also for carpets, sportswear, and as industrial yarns for technical textiles. Fabrics for apparel, for example, require comfort, hand, drape, breathability, easy care, durability/abrasion, esthetics, dye-ability and, of course, tailorability. 1.8. The spinnerets are stainless steel discs containing precision-engineered holes of around 0.2 mm diameter, through which the filaments are extruded into a cooling airflow from a quenching cabinet (Fig. Stretch depends on amount of twist. the means of the properties of spun yarns and a significant difference among them is observed. Crawshaw, in Specialist Yarn and Fabric Structures, 2011. Increasing this distance will adversely affect the orientation of the core fibres, and produce yarns with lower strengths and elongations. The coarse fibre can be used even for producing finer yarns without compromising the cover of the yarn core. Yarns made with longer fibres tend to be smoother, more lustrous and stronger than those made with shorter fibres as do yarns made with fibres that are more aligned. Wool tufting yarns and Axminster yarns are usually woollen spun. The fabric itself imposes another set of variables, such as sett and weave, to further diversify the overall list of fabric properties. The process enables many different mechanical and physical treatments to be applied to the individual stages of the pure CNT spinning system, and may allow potential for the development of complex spinning processes such as polymer-CNT based composite yarns. 13.11. G.H. This adversely influenced dye uptake and colour consistency in fabrics. A twist setting process is required for optimum tuft definition and higher levels of folding twist than used in balanced yarns stress fibres and enhance setting. Combed yarns are stronger, more regular and more lustrous than carded yarns. The twist of hosiery yarns is approximately 20% below the warp yarns. R.A. Angelova, in Advances in Yarn Spinning Technology, 2010. In addition, it is standard practice to apply filament interlacing to the yarn, using compressed air jets before winding to apply an inter-filament cohesion frequency, typically around 4–5 entanglements per metre, to avoid filament separation during off-wind of the spun yarn package in downstream processing (Fig. The count of rotor yarn is very low. S. Grishanov, in Handbook of Textile and Industrial Dyeing, 2011. In the modern day POY spinning process, the polymer chips are fed, under controlled moisture conditions and in an inert atmosphere, using a screw extruder, which has accurately controlled temperature zones to progressively melt the polymer. Spun yarn consists of short, staple fibers woven together to create a single yarn to be used in weaving, knitting projects, and clothing manufacturing. Model depicting amorphous and crystalline regions in the molecular chains.16 (a) Amorphous areas (b) Crystalline ordered regions. Opening is accompanied by disentangling. Spun yarn is a kind of yarn made by gathering together a bundle of the staple by spinning the spindles at a very high speed to twist the staples together to form a piece of yarn. Core- sheath ratio: It has been found that decreasing sheath content will increase the strength of the core-spun yarn.

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