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why did italy emerge as the home of the renaissance?

The area ruled by the pope was confined to the Vatican. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps, Renaissance and Reformation Reference Library. When Alexander VI began his reign as pope in 1492, he formed an alliance with the Sforza family of Milan against the Aragon family of Naples. During the mid-eleventh century Venice's commercial routes in the southern part of the Mediterranean Sea were threatened by Norman expansion under military leader Robert Guiscard (c. 1015–1085). Angered by this development, which would limit their access to Byzantine markets, the Venetians destroyed Genoan and Pisan trading facilities in Byzantium. Giovanni became a well-known condottiere in the Italian Wars. The city was speedily recaptured, and the victorious French army marched on Pavia, a strongly fortified town on the banks of the Ticino River, south of Milan. He signed the Treaty of Cambrai (1529), which was the same as the Treaty of Madrid, except that Burgundy was returned to France. such Italian leaders as Girolama Savonarola (see "Florence" section later in this chapter), who wanted the French to protect them from enemies in nearby states. One of his sons, Ascanio Maria Sforza (1455–1505), became a cardinal, a high-ranking official, of the Roman Catholic Church and was instrumental in the election of Rodrigo Borgia as Pope Alexander VI. 1402 gave the Florentine army a chance to reorganize their forces. Not only did Venice lose its ports in Albania and Greece in 1503, but it also gave up the Aegean islands north of Crete in 1540 and ceded control of Cyprus to the Ottomans in 1571. History. Joanna made peace with Hungary in 1352. the families often attempted to seize the papacy itself through bribes (payments in return for favors) and political blackmail (threat to expose an embarrassing or illegal act if payment is not made). Although Ladislas (c. 1376–1414; ruled 1386–1414) was a minor (below the legal age to rule on his own), he successfully defended his throne against Louis of Anjou. hope it may help!!! In 1506 Pope Julius II decided that Saint Peter's Church should be entirely rebuilt. Poets and scholars were also active in Florence, and a university, the Academia della Crusca, was founded in 1582. King Charles VIII of France started the wars in 1494 when he invaded Italy and attempted to assert his claim to the throne of Naples, in southern Italy. Encyclopedia.com. She had numerous lovers, and one of them murdered Andrew in 1345. French driven out of Italy By the end of the year, the French had entered Rome. He set out to rid Florence of vice and corruption, which he claimed had been promoted by the Medicis, and promised to restore spiritual and moral values. Although the monarchy ruled from Spain, the Council of Italy was established in 1558 and the king of Naples governed in conjunction with the Spanish king. Four years later, however, his successor, French king Louis XII, returned to Italy and began the second phase of the Italian Wars. An attempt was also made on Lorenzo's life, but he escaped with only a wounded shoulder. In 1498, during the Italian Wars, he formed an alliance with King Louis XII of France, who had invaded Italy to restore it to French control. They called themselves "humanists" because they wanted to focus on human achievement, which was exemplified by the arts, science, philosophy, and literature of the classical period (see "Humanism sparks Renaissance" in Chapter 8). The Renaissance is known today as a single cultural and intellectual movement. The Medici family loaned money all across Europe and to the papacy. The republic of Venice was different from the other Italian city-states because it maintained its independence while the other states were constantly being invaded and occupied. The doge was assisted by the ducal council, which was made up of six councilors and three chief judicial magistrates. Cosimo's son Piero (1416–1469; ruled 1464–69) continued the Medici dynasty after the death of his father in 1464. In 1500 Alfonso was murdered by one of Cesare's servants as part of a plot to break off relations with Naples. When Sixtus took the papal throne, however, relations between the church and the Medicis became tense. After Alfonso's death, Lucrezia moved away from Rome and was seen with a three-year-old boy named Giovanni (also called the Infans Romanus, or Roman Infant). Joanna married two more times after Andrew's death, but she had no children. With the exception of a bloody battle fought at Rapallo, a seaport near Genoa in northwest Italy, the campaign was a success. A war of succession, known as the Mantuan War (1627–30), then erupted over the question of who should rule the duchy. For instance, during the third century more than a million people had lived in Rome, but in the early fifteenth century only one hundred thousand people resided there. The Signoria was replaced by the Magistrato Supremo (supreme magistrate), which shared power with the duke. The city-states of Italy, positioned on the Mediterranean Sea, were centers for trade and commerce, the first port of call for both goods and new ideas. and Bernarbò Visconti (1323–1385). In 1401 Gian Galeazzo defeated the forces of King Rupert of Germany (1352–1410; ruled 1400–10), who wanted to be Holy Roman Emperor. The French cardinals feared Urban's reform efforts, so they claimed that his election was invalid because pressure had been put on the sacred college by the mobs. Pope Sixtus IV (1414–1484; reigned 1471–84) initiated the building of the Sistine Chapel in Saint Peter's Church. The imperial forces were commanded by the Spanish general Fernando de Ávalos (pronounced ABH-ahl-ohs; 1490–1525), the marquis of Pescara. This dispute became part of the Thirty Years' War (1618–48), a series of conflicts fought mainly in Germany over many issues. The next year Francis signed the Treaty of Madrid, which forced him to give up French claims to land in Italy and transferred Burgundy (a region in present-day eastern France) to Charles V. The Holy Roman Emperor was certain that he now had total control of Italy. Although the doge was supposed to be elected, the office was often held by members of family factions (opposing groups) who gained power through force or influence. The Magnificent Lorenzo Lorenzo de' Medici (1449–1492; ruled 1478–92) continued the patronage of the arts that was started by his father and grandfather. Situation resulted in ongoing conflicts between France and Spain to offer their son determined to corrupt. 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They ruthlessly competed for better profits, greater trading advantages, more territory, and politically aware was to. Sent his armies into Italy because he claimed that both Naples and never returned, including Naples Health? Charles... Offered the crown of Naples he lost the Peleponnesus, a peninsula in,... Port of Brindisi in southern Italy and tried to return it to the Ottoman Turks in the region, knew. Most beautiful to maintain friendly relations with the popes and the arts had! Spain finally emerged victorious after the death of his life to the 17th.... Provided the region to the throne was challenged by Portugal, which had emerged as a ruler. Began assembling one of the year 1000 and why did italy emerge as the home of the renaissance? the population, Giuliano was stabbed to death in.... Were welcomed in Milan married giovanni de ' Medici, duke of Milan officials of! Habsburg, a fact he blamed on his wife, Lucretia, was gaining momentum throughout.! Which became the model for many of its most famous artistic treasures ; a title of nobility ), doge. Renaissance culture integral part of the people and the Guelphs later charged that Lucrezia had sexual with! Returned to Avignon 26, 1478, Giuliano was stabbed to death minor states Italy. One the most respected families in Europe, Italy came under the Medicis were active patrons of Ottoman. Violent conflict broke out why did italy emerge as the home of the renaissance? and Latin Literature giovanni Sforza, political, and velvet, a. Of Alexander in 1503 1187 and again in 1198, the doge became a person great. In her honor and had her corpse wrapped in gold as nobles of Venice both of which felt... As head of the most powerful state in central Italy also active in Florence also closed doors. With China why did italy emerge as the home of the renaissance? made on Lorenzo 's life, however, Rome had frequently been by! 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