This suggests that learners who concentrated on markers on the balance platform (external focus) utilized more, and faster, reflex loops operating at an automatic level, while those who focused internally on their feet used more conscious, and slower, feedback loops. Frontiers in Psychology, 1 (Article 42), 1-3, doi: /fpsyg Lewthwaite, R., & Wulf, G. (2010b). Chiviacowsky, Wulf, and Lewthwaite (2012) demonstrated that learners practicing a coincident-timing task, who were informed that errors within a very small bandwidth (4 ms) constituted good performance, showed less effective learning than those with a comparatively large error bandwidth (30 ms), or those who had not been given a criterion (control group). CHAPTER 5 MOTIVATION AND JOB SATISFACTION AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE CHAPTER. (2011). Keep your fingers crossed! CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY? In another line of research, the so-called quiet eye a final visual fixation of at least 100 ms directed at a certain location or target (e.g., golf ball, basketball hoop, bull s eye) before movement execution has been shown to be associated with enhanced performance of tasks with specific targets (e.g., Moore, Vine, Freeman, & Wilson, 2013; Vickers, 1996). Retrieved September 29, 2015 from Iowa Research Online: Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. Table 1 identifies a number of predictions that follow from the OPTIMAL theory. European Journal of Neuroscience, 28, Zachry, T., Wulf, G., Mercer, J., & Bezodis, N. (2005). Evidence for end-point trajectory planning during a kicking action. The nucleus accumbens: An interface between cognition, emotion, and action. *** Insert Table 1 about here *** We contend that these factors contribute to successful outcomes by strengthening the coupling of performers goals to their movement actions, presumably operating in complementary ways. External focus instructions resulted in reduced heart rate and EMG activity than internal focus instructions despite a larger range of motion. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26, Porter, J. M., Nolan, R. P., Ostrowski, E. J., & Wulf, G. (2010). An external focus of attention enhances balance learning in older adults. Guss-West, C., & Wulf, G. (in press). who performed a gymnastics skill (180-degree turn in the air). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, White II, M. H., & Sheldon, K. M. (2014). 53, 54 OPTIMAL Theory 54 As we noted in our introduction, differences between scientific fields studying motor learning from different vantage points can be challenging to overcome in order to achieve important insights. Interestingly, the production of greater maximal forces with an external focus has also been found to be associated with reduced muscular activity (e.g., Marchant et al., 2009; Wulf & Dufek, 2009; Wulf, Dufek, Lozano, & Pettigrew, 2010). Both enhanced expectancies (and related autonomy), and attentional focus direct movers with relative clarity toward their action goals. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, Holladay, C. L., & Quinones, M. A. In: M. Raab, J. G. Johnson, & H. R. Heekeren (Eds. The task involved pushing against a force platform with the foot and producing 30% of the maximal force. Importantly, functional connectivity is related to motor skill learning (Albert et al., 2009) and to higher levels of motor skill (e.g., Di, Zhu, Jin, Wang, Ye, Zhou, Zhuo, & Rao, 2012; Ito, Matsuda, & Shimojo, 2015; Kim, Han, Kim, & Han, 2015; Milton, Solodkin, Hluštík, & Small, 2007; Li, He, Huang, Zhang, Lu, Lai, Luo & Yao, 2015). While various possible accounts of this phenomenon have been offered (for a review, see Vickers, 2009), it seems likely that an external attentional focus promoted by the visual focus on an external object is at least partially responsible for the performance effects (e.g., Vine, Moore, Wilson, 2011, 2015). (2008). However, we question the idea that learners should generally not be given instructions about the correct movement technique. In a study by Wulf, Raupach, and Pfeiffer (2005), participants practiced a basketball jump shot, and a video of a skilled model could either be requested by them or was provided to them at the respective times during practice. 86. These include research on (a) conditions that enhance expectancies for future performance, (b) variables that influence learners autonomy, and (c) an external focus of attention on the intended movement effect. Power to the will: How exerting physical effort boosts the sense of agency. ), Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in Attention and Action (p ). Thus, clearing the mind from distracting or self-related thoughts may be helpful, but an affirmative external focus on relevant movement effects may potentially be even more beneficial. As reviewed above, within the motor learning domain evidence from various lines of research indicates that enhancing performance expectancies facilitates learning. Frontiers in Psychology, 1 (Article 196), doi: /fpsyg Ong, N. T., & Hodges, N. J. The group for whom the larger circle was identified, putted more accurately in practice, and in 24-hour retention and transfer tests than did the group with the higher standard or more conservative (smaller circle) definition of success. Performance and learning were also facilitated. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is pertinent to integrative and instrumental motivation related to L2 language learning (Brown, 2000). We propose the OPTIMAL (Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning) theory of motor learning. Psychological Science, 18, Clark, S.E., & D.M. Since the publication of the first study demonstrating the advantages of an external focus for motor learning (Wulf, Höß, & Prinz, 1998), many studies have followed. Functional connectivity tracks the learning of motor skills, and more distinct functional connections are associated with higher skill (Kim, Chang, Kim, Seo, Ryu, Lee, Woo, & Janelle, 2014; Milton et al., 2007). Manipulations to the timing and type of instructions to examine motor skill performance under pressure. Current Biology, 19, Amodio, D. M., & Frith, C. D. (2006). Psychological Bulletin, 125, de la Fuente-Fernandez, R. (2009). This suggested that movement effects that occur at a greater distance from the body, or self and are presumably more easily distinguishable from body movements result in even greater automaticity. Note. Also, oxygen consumption was reduced in experienced runners when they focused externally (Schücker, Hagemann, Strauss, & Völker, 2009; Schücker, Anheier, Hagemann, Strauss, & Völker, 2013). Movement effectiveness as a function of attentional focus has also been assessed by using outcome measures such as the accuracy in hitting a target. Of course, the obverse may be true low personal expectations for a positive outcome may activate conflicting responses or act in the manner of a self-invoking trigger (see section on External Focus of Attention; McKay, Wulf, & Lewthwaite, 2015), inviting potentially task-incompatible concerns, anxiety, negative affective reactions, and neuromuscular activity, necessitating resource deployment to self-regulation and recovery. For example, in a study by Lohse et al., an external focus on the flight of the dart not only improved throwing accuracy relative to a focus on the hand, but also resulted in reduced EMG activity in the antagonist triceps muscle. Similarly, cognitions or thoughts can speed (e.g., focusing on the intended movement effect) or slow motor learning (e.g., focusing on movement coordination) (Wulf, 2013). Moreover, mindfulness training has been shown to lead to improved decision making (Hafenbrack, Kinias, & Barsade, 2013). We speculate that some of the benefits of higher expectancies and an external attentional focus occur by facilitating efficient switching within and across brain networks (Predictions 9 and 10). 59 OPTIMAL Theory 59 Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). External Focus of Attention Attention may refer to task and environment monitoring, scope or breadth of physical and other cues relevant to task performance, the skill or ability to control concentration despite conflicting inputs or distraction, as well as concentration on content regarding particular movement-relevant cues. Trends in Cognitive Science, 14, Lewthwaite, R., Chiviacowsky, S., Drews, R., & Wulf, G. (2015). Generally, conditions that optimize performance facilitate learning 92, 93 OPTIMAL Theory 93 Figure 1. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 47, Moore, L. J., Vine, S. J., Freeman, P., & Wilson, M. R (2013). An external focus of attention enhances motor learning in children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, Lohse, K. R., & Sherwood, D. E. (2012). Furthermore, in both studies, perceived autonomy or choice was significantly correlated with self-efficacy. Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning: The OPTIMAL Theory of Motor Learning Gabriele Wulf University of Nevada, Las Vegas Rebecca Lewthwaite Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center and University of Southern California Author Note Both authors contributed equally to this work. Further, there have been continuing advances beyond origins in animal models in neuroscience, including content related to human social, cognitive, affective, and motor neuroscience. (Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning) theory (i.e., OPTIMAL theory, Wulf and Lewthwaite, 2016), and have been applied in motor skill acquisition and performance. We suggest that motivational and attentional factors contribute to performance and learning by strengthening the coupling of goals to actions. From Increased carry distance and X-factor stretch in golf through an external focus of attention, by J. (2015). American Psychologist, 55, Saemi, E., Porter, J.M., Ghotbi-Varzaneh, A., Zarghami, M., & Maleki, F. (2012). How self-determined choice facilitates performance: A key role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. We have intrepidly walked into this intersection. Abe and colleagues (Abe, Schambra, Wassermann, Luckenbaugh, Schweighofer, & Cohen, 2011) found that a group receiving monetary rewards for good performance on a tracking task during practice showed more effective learning than a group that was punished for poor performance (by having money deducted) or a control group. Unpublished manuscript, Max-Planck Institute for Psychological Research, Munich. http://www.scirp.org/journal/jss http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jss.2016.46008 The Influence of Stressful Life Events of, Enhancement of Sport Skill Learning through Intensive Peer and Teacher Feedback Bik Chow, Siu-yin Cheung, and Judy Ng Hong Kong Baptist University A b s t r a c t The purpose of the programme was to improve, NEW TOOLS IN COMMUNICATION NARRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH CHILDREN AND THEIR FAMILIES USING EXPRESSIVE ARTS TO DESCRIBE THEIR SIGNIFICANT EXPERIENCES Many Ways Children Express Needs, Wants, and Desires Through, WHAT WILL YOU KNOW? A Study in Learning Styles of Construction Management Students Amit Bandyopadhyay, Ph.D., PE, F.ASCE State University of New York -FSC Abstract Students take in and process information in different ways. (i.e., controlling language). doi: /fpsyg Vine, S. J., Moore, S. J., & Wilson, M. R. (2015). Psychological Science, 10, Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). The salience network has recently been identified as critical in executing the switch between networks focused on exogenous and self-referential processing to reposition the organism for new tasks (Sridharan et al., 2008). It is conceivable that 24, 25 OPTIMAL Theory 25 the potentiating effect of success with challenge on the strength of the resultant dopamine response may give rise to a variety of beneficial learning and memory effects often attributed to challenge or task difficulty per se (e.g., Lee, Swinnen, & Serrien, 1994). An underappreciated function of feedback in the motor learning literature has been its influence on the performer s motivational state. Self-controlled observational practice enhances learning. Mentoring May Help, Grade: 11 th & 12 th grade, Psychology TEKS Guiding Questions Content Vocabulary Resources/Lesson Ideas, Reconsidering Autotelic Play. A., & Proffitt, D. R. (2011). Zimmerman & D.H. Schunk (Eds. (2015). Recently, Murayama and colleagues demonstrated the undermining effect of reward on subsequent free choice behavior and neural activation, finding more limited engagement in the 33, 34 OPTIMAL Theory 34 task and reduced activation in the anterior striatum, midbrain, and lateral prefrontal cortex following reward (Murayama, Matsumoto, Izuma, & Matsumoto, 2010). (1995). Motivation modulates motor-related feedback activity in the human basal ganglia, Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 15 years, Additive benefits of external focus and enhanced performance expectancy for motor learning, Directing attention to movement effects enhances learning: A review, Diminished neural responses predict enhanced intrinsic motivation and sensitivity to external incentive, Expectancy in Motor Behavior: A Crucial Element of the Psychobiological States That Affect Performance, Choose to move: The motivational impact of autonomy support on motor learning, Effects of Attentional Focus on Skilled Performance in Golf. Further progress will involve closing empirical gaps, including the elicitation of dopamingergic responses with a variety of rewards or positive experiences and capturing the process of network development and dynamic switching between networks. Independent of which factor the learner is given control over or whether this factor is even related to the task to be learned the learning benefits appear to be very robust and generalizable to different tasks, age groups, and populations. Biological Psychiatry, 62, Guadagnoli, M. A., & Lee, T. D. (2004). Psychology and Aging, 28, Linkenauger, S. A., Witt, J. K., Stefanucci, J. K., Bakdash, J. In N. J. Hodges & M. A. Williams (Eds. London: Routledge. Thus, movement efficiency is enhanced as well. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82, Badami, R., VaezMousavi, M., Wulf, G., & Namazizadeh, M. (2012). Current Opinion in Neurology, 16(Suppl. Self-controlled concurrent feedback has been shown to facilitate the learning of perceptual invariants (i.e., adjusting walking speed when walking through virtual opening and closing doors) (Huet, Camachon, Fernandez, Jacobs, & Montagne, 2009) and landing a virtual aircraft (Huet, Jacobs, Camachon, Goulon, & Montagne, 2009). Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15, Ewell, L. A., & Leutgeb, S. (2014). (2010). Guidelines for Integrative Core Curriculum Themes and Perspectives Designations, RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF TRUE COLORS. How do they learn to cut to the chase and connect their thoughts to their actions? That is, it is the anticipation of reward (broadly defined) or reward prediction error (Schultz, 2000, 2013) that places this form of enhanced expectancies within our consideration here. Variability of practice and implicit motor learning. Students perceptions of factors influencing tertiary learning. A) The degree of genetic difference typically remains stable from infancy through adulthood. Motivation and Emotion, 35, Ridderinkhof, K. R., van Wouwe N. C., Band, G. P., Wylie, S. A., Van der Stigchel, S., van Hees, P., Buitenweg, J., van de Vijver, I., & van den Wildenberg, W. P. (2012). Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 78, Wulf, G., & Toole, T. (1999). Enhanced expectancies improve performance under pressure. Increased movement accuracy and reduced EMG activity as the result of adopting an external focus of attention. Visual illusions can facilitate sport skill learning. Studies have also shown an association of external focus instructions and various measures of automaticity. Quest, 46. Giving participants a choice of ball color has also been found to increase the learning of a throwing task (Wulf, Chiviacowsky, & Cardozo, 2014). The OPTIMAL theory builds on the premise that motor learning cannot be understood without considering the motivational (e.g., 6, 7 OPTIMAL Theory 7 social-cognitive and affective) and attentional influences on behavior. Rosie Gallant Practicum Learning Report OMC 692. Self-determination, self-regulation, and the brain: Autonomy improves performance by enhancing neuroaffective responsiveness to self-regulation failure. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 15, Maslovat, D., Hayes, S. J., Horn, R., & Hodges, N. J. Thus, when an effect occurs soon after the agent s intent and action, agency is expected and assumed. We suggest that motiva-tional and attentional factors contribute to performance and learning by strengthening the coupling of goals to actions. intrinsic or extrinsic. NOvelty-related Motivation of Anticipation and exploration by Dopamine (NOMAD): Implications for healthy aging. Functional connectivity can be disrupted in a number of diseases and disorders, including clinical conditions such as Parkinson s disease, traumatic brain injury, depression, Alzheimer s 50, 51 OPTIMAL Theory 51 disease, autism, schizophrenia, and stroke (Buckner, Andrews-Hanna, & Schacter, 2008; Corbetta, 2012). Potential consequences of autonomysupportive conditions include facilitation of performance (Karsh & Eitam, 2015; Legault & Inzlicht, 2013) as well as the opportunity to enhance perceptions of competence, self-efficacy, and sense of agency (Chambon & Haggard, 2012). Attentional focusing strategies influence bicep EMG during isokinetic bicep curls. Chang and colleagues examined novice high school students performing a softball throw for accuracy and distance, and motivational, instructional, and unrelated (weather, pet s and parents names, etc.) In addition, choice of exercise order can increase performers willingness to complete more repetitions (Wulf, Freitas, & Tandy, 2014) which may provide an additional indirect benefit to learning. Northoff, G., Heinzel, A., de Greck, M., Bermpohl, F., Dobrowolny, H., & Panksepp, J. Attentional focusing instructions influence force production and muscular activity during isokinetic elbow flexions. Skinner and Operant Conditioning. This distance effect has been replicated with other tasks, including hitting golf balls (Bell & Hardy, 2009), dart throwing (McKay & Wulf, 2012), or the standing long jump (Porter, Anton, & Wu, 2012). Conceptions of ability can be influenced, often relatively easily, by task instructions or performance feedback. It is not surprising then that the words motivation and motor [learning, behavior, performance] share the same Latin root, movere (to move). Learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results in 10-year old children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82, Post, P. G., Fairbrother, J. T., Barros, J. s for basketball free throw shooting. 1 Positive normative feedback has been found to increase perceived competence (Ávila et al., 2012), reduce concerns and nervousness about performance and ability (Wulf et al., 2012, Experiment 1), increase satisfaction with performance and motivation to learn (Wulf, Lewthwaite, & Hooyman, 2013), and increase positive affect (Stoate et al., 2012). Journal of Neuroscience, 28, Draganski, B., & May, A. This study was initiated to find out why students seemed uninterested in learning public speaking, One Stop Shop For Educators. Psychological Bulletin, 130, Doll, A., Hölzel, B. K., Boucard, C. C., Wohlschläger, A. M., & Sorg, C. (2015).
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