Many of his theories drew off of Ratzel's Organic State, Mackinder's Heartland Theory, and a few others. The term state refers to the government; for example, the United States has a State Department with a Secretary of State. The idea is that the heartland is a pivot point for controlling all of Asia and Africa, which he referred to as the World Island. Initially, the United States was organized as a confederation, a loosely allied group of independent states united in a common goal to defeat the British. He sought to determine the least-cost production location within the triangle by figuring the total costs of transporting raw material from both sites to the production site and product from the production site to the market. human geography definition: 1. the study of the different ways in which human societies develop and operate in relation toâ¦. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. UTAustinX: UT.HGEO.13.01x AP* Human Geography. In Medieval Europe, feudalism furthered the rationalization and formalization of the state. Through AP courses in 38 subjects, each culminating in a â¦ Anarchists believe that the state is inherently an instrument of domination and repression, no matter who is in control of it. This is the Unit 6 - Urbanization power-point for AP Human Geography. This is often the result of unresolved centrifugal forces pulling the nation apart from within, such as economic disparity and ethnic or religious conflicts. In geographer Walter Christaller created his Central Place Theory that used economics and geography to explain the distribution, size, and number of â¦ Pluralism has been challenged on the ground that it is not supported by empirical evidence. The French Revolution (1789–95) was an example of the political transformation taking place across Europe to establish democratic processes for governance. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Many countries have an underdeveloped sense of nationhood and therefore are better suited to use a Federalist style of government where power is geographically distributed among several subnational units. Members. This colonial expansion across the globe is called imperialism. Agriculture allowed communities to settle and also led to class division: some people devoted all their time to food production, while others were freed to specialize in other activities, such as writing or ruling. AP Human Geography: >>Basic Theories and Models<< By: The Untouchable The Gravity Model: What is the Gravity Model? Learn more. These theories have been expanded upon and refined by geographers, economists, and regional scientists. They then view the state as a neutral body that enacts the will of whichever group dominates the electoral process. Political spaces exist at multiple scales, from a kid’s bedroom to the entire planet. Human geography consists of a number of sub-disciplinary fields that focus on different elements of human activity and organization, for example, cultural geography, economic geography, health geography, historical geography, political geography, population geography, rural geography, social geography, transport geography, and urban geography. The United States has had a challenging time resolving whether it wants to pursue a unitary or federal style government. Blog. The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 and those that followed helped establish a sense of peace and stability in Central Europe, which had been dominated by the Holy Roman Empire and competing powers. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to â¦ If the central government grows too strong, then federalism comes closer to a unitary state, where the governing body has supreme authority and dictates how much power the units are allowed to have. Anarchism is a political philosophy that considers states immoral and instead promotes a stateless society, anarchy. ” For Marxist theorists, the role of the non-socialist state is determined by its function in the global capitalist order. The truth is that this ideal goal is challenging to come by. I = PAT is the mathematical notation of a formula put forward to describe the impact of human activity on the environment.. The Gravity Model is used to predict the movement of people & ideas between two places. Thus, states, as an institution, were a social invention. Though the political boundaries of many European countries resemble nation-states, there is too much diversity within the nations to consider the idea of creating a nation-state an actual reality. Although in some countries, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea defines the boundary of international waters. In 2011, the Indian government ordered the Economist magazine to remove or cover such a map in 28,000 copies of its May edition which were for sale in India. Unitary systems work best where there is no strong opposition to central control. Also, the government of British Columbia has rejected proposals by the United States, instead of arguing that the Juan de Fuca submarine canyon is the appropriate “geomorphic and physio-geographic boundary.” The resolution of the issue should be simple but has been hindered because it might influence other unresolved maritime boundary issues between Canada and the United States around the Gulf of Maine. When nations and states come together, there is a true nation-state, wherein most citizens share a common heritage and a united government. Johann Heinrich von Thünen, a Prussian landowner, introduced an early theory of agricultural location in Der isolierte Staat (1826) (The Isolated State). Both Hitler and the USSR believed this was possible, but both failed because they did not foresee the rise of other world powers such as the United States and China. Political sociologists continue to debate the origins of the state and the processes of state formation. The hostile fragmentation of a region into smaller, political units is called Balkanization. If the transport costs were lower than the labour costs, then a cheap-labour alternative location was determined. The production site, therefore, will be located near the raw material sources. Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Theory: Ehrlichâs theory is that there will be a disaster for humanity due to over population. Poor households require greater accessibility to the city centre and therefore will locate near the centre, competing with commercial and industrial establishments. Heartland Theory, also known as “The Geographic Pivot of History” theory, Mackinder thought that whoever controlled Eastern Europe, the heartland, would control the world. Imagine, for example, if Canada announced a claim to Washington State, and maps published outside North America began showing that state as a disputed territory. His model envisaged a single market surrounded by farmland, both situated on a plain of complete physical homogeneity. Therefore, the political elite in a capital city (like Paris or Tokyo) frequently have outsized power over the rest of the country. Notes taken in Chapter 5 of AP Human Geography. 298767307: Martha Sharma: Recently retired from the National Cathedral School in Washington, D.C., after teaching geography there for 21 years. This is also known as territoriality. Independent states are the primary building blocks of the world political map. …provided—according to principles of least-cost location. Marxist theory, on the other hand, sees politics as intimately intermingled with economic relations, and emphasizes the relationship between economic power and political power. Marx and Engels were clear that communism’s goal was a classless society in which the state would have “withered away. Consider the case of Kashmir, a territory disputed between India and Pakistan. What is visual communication and why it matters; Nov. 20, 2020. He believed that the state mirrored societal class relations, that it regulated and repressed class struggle, and that it was a tool of political power and domination for the ruling class. The Case for Getting Rid of Borders – Completely, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Sociologist Charles Tilly is the best-known theorist in this tradition. Different crops will possess different rent gradients. question. Ehrlich postulated that cells contained surface extensions or side chains (haptophores) that bind to the antigenic determinants of a toxin (toxophores); after a cell is stimulated, the haptophores are released into the circulation and become the antibodies. The Thünen model suggests that accessibility to the market (town) can create a complete system of agricultural land use. To state it plainly, most Europeans, and to an extent every human, want to be a member of a nation-state where everyone is alike and shares the same culture, heritage, and government. These two factors helped to spread nationalism around the globe and have influenced modern political boundaries. Location theory addresses the questions of what economic activities are located where and why. A former member of the AP Human Geography Development Committee, she is currently president of the National Council for Geographic Education. The Organic Theory states that nations must continually seek nourishment in the form of gaining land to survive in the same way that a living organism seeks nourishment from food to survive. The central government in a federal system focuses on things like national defense, managing interstate transportation, and regulating a common currency. Location theory, in economics and geography, theory concerned with the geographic location of economic activity; it has become an integral part of economic geography, regional science, and spatial economics.Location theory addresses the questions of what economic activities are located where and why. Intensive agriculture will possess a steep gradient and will locate closer to the market than extensive agriculture. Later, empires formed when a single city-state militarily controlled several city-states. According to the United Nations, in 2016, the world had 193 nations; however, many of those nations dispute their boundaries. The agrarian revolution and the Industrial Revolution were powerful movements that altered human activity in many ways. William Alonso (Location and Land Use: Toward a General Theory of Land Rent, 1964) built upon the Thünen model to account for intra-urban variations in land use. Although Wittfogel’s theory is well known, it has also been criticized as inaccurate. This style of governance makes sense when a country is “young” – and is still in the process of nation-building or developing a common identity necessary to the establishment of a unified nationality. The location of economic activities can be determined on a broad level such as a region or metropolitan area, or on a narrow one such as a zone, neighbourhood, city block, or an individual site. Pluralists view society as a collection of individuals and groups competing for political power. The TFR is 2.44 babies per woman. Innovations in food production and the manufacturing of products transformed Europe, and in turn, political currents were undermining the established empire mentality fueled by warfare and territorial disputes. In those places like Egypt, France, and Japan, where nationalist feelings are strong, and there are many centripetal forces like language, religion, and economic prosperity uniting people, a unitary state makes much sense. College Boardâs Advanced Placement® Program (AP®) enables willing and academically prepared students to pursue college-level studiesâwith the opportunity to earn college credit, advanced placement, or bothâwhile still in high school. Matt Berti (mrberti) Lists. The first ancient states that formed during this time were called city-states. A city-state is a sovereign state that encompasses a town and the surrounding landscape. In other words, instead of asking (like Wittfogel) where the very first states came from, Tilly asked where the types of states with which we are most familiar came from, and why they became so prevalent. First he plotted the variation of transportation costs against the least-transport-cost location. The Thünen, Weber, Alonso, and Christaller models are not the sole contributors to location theory, but they are its foundation. Weber’s theory, called the location triangle, sought the optimum location for the production of a good based on the fixed locations of the market and two raw material sources, which geographically form a triangle. This question has been one of the central political issues in the U.S., since even before the War for Independence. He theorized that because the Rimland contains most of the world’s people as well as a large share of the world’s resources, it was more important than heartland. Among the world's largest multinational states are A) Russia and the United States. The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin. Explanation: . Most agree that the earliest states emerged when agriculture and writing made it possible to centralize power durable. Marxists view the state as a partisan instrument that primarily serves the interests of the upper class. The U.S. began as a federalist system. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. When you cross the International â¦ The assumption was that individuals want to minimize the time and cost involved in journeys to shops and offices, and thus the needed facilities should be both as close to their homes as possible and clustered together so that they can make as many…, …of commodity transportation and the location of production.…. Another theory of state formation focuses on the long, slow, process of rationalization and bureaucratization that began with the invention of writing. Politically, Spykman called for the consolidation of the Rimland countries to ensure their survival during World War II. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Start studying AP Human Geography Models & Theories. American colleges and universities may grant placement and course credit to students who obtain high scores on the examinations. Omissions? This topic explores the components and regional variations of cultural patterns and processes that are critical to human geography. This is akin to the law of the jungle – eat or be eaten. All households will attempt to occupy as much land as possible while staying within their accessibility requirements. answer. Europeans used colonialism to promote political control over religion, extract natural resources, increase economic influence, and to expand political and military power. This process is often beneficial to the unitary nations to prevent political instability and conflict; however, it can be withdrawn by the central government at any time. Earlier, quite large land areas had been either unclaimed or uninhabited, or inhabited by nomadic peoples who were not organized as states. Many people have tried to exert control over the physical world to exert power for religious, economic, or cultural reasons. At each location, somebody or some group seeks to establish the rules governing what happens in that space, how power is shared (or not), and who even has the right to access those spaces. Rather than break into multiple smaller states, a country can choose to give each of its ethnicities or nationalities some measure of political autonomy. This was an early example of modern economic geography because it explained the economic development of cities based on land use. This theory was articulated by German American historian Karl August Wittfogel in his book 1957 Oriental Despotism. The European states first colonized the New World of the Americas, but later redirected their focus to Africa and Asia. For instance, The Strait of Juan de Fuca is the wide waterway stretching from the Pacific Ocean on the West to the San Juan Islands on the east, with Vancouver Island to the north and the Olympic Peninsula to the south. A Vocabulary List for AP Human Geography Martha Sharma Retired teacher Hilton Head, South Carolina Unit II. This will tend to create a segregated land use system, because households will not pay commercial and industrial land prices for central locations. The term Balkanization refers to an area that was known as the Ottoman Empire, and it occupied the area where we have current countries like Bulgaria, Albania, and Serbia. This means that there are groups of people who share a collective identity and history, but who have no parcel of land that they fully control. Where there is no great loss of mass during production, total transportation costs will be lower when located near the market. Both governments have proposed a boundary based on the principle of equidistance, but with different base point selections, resulting in small differences in the line. I = P × A × T. The expression equates human impact on the environment (I) to the product of three factors: population (P), affluence (A) and technology (T). The determining factor in the location rent will be the transportation costs. European countries have progressed to the point where the concept of forming or remaining a nation-state is a driving force in many political sectors. The model assumes that farmers surrounding the market will produce crops which have the highest market value (highest rent) that will give them the maximum net profit (the location, or land, rent). Gratitude in the workplace: How gratitude can improve your well-being and relationships Federalism is a system of government with one, strong, central governing authority as well as smaller units, such as states. Within India, publishers are required to show Kashmir as part of India. Nov. 21, 2020. AP Human Geography FRQs From magic .piktochart .com - July 8, 2015 12:20 PM "Based upon student reactions to their multiple choice exams, I can tell that the types of questions are NOT, 'choose the correct definition for the vocabulary term.' This video will help you understand everything you need to know about the Epidemiologic Transition Model. Environmental determinism example. A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex. Maps outside the disputant countries commonly show both boundaries, noting their disputed status. Since the late nineteenth century, virtually the entirety of the world’s inhabitable land has been parceled up into areas with more or less definite borders claimed by various states. The concept of the modern nation-state began in Europe as a political revolution laid the groundwork for a sense of nationalism: a feeling of devotion or loyalty to a specific nation. This is why, in the United States, the word state is used to designate major subnational government units, rather than the word province, as is common in much of the world. However, this compromise is not neutral, as it sends a message that both claims are equally legitimate. Operating under the Articles of Confederation from roughly 1776-1789, the new and decentralized country found itself challenged to do simple things like raise taxes, sign treaties with foreign countries, or print a common currency because the central government (Congress) was so very weak. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The Medieval state was organized by Estates, or parliaments in which key social groups negotiated with the king about legal and economic matters. Fights over local control are minimal, and the power of local (provincial) governments is relatively weak. The people, therefore, had good reason to give control to a central state, but in giving up control over the irrigation system, they also gave up control over their livelihoods and, thus, the central state gained immense control over people in general. This situation produces a rent gradient along which the location rent decreases with distance from the market, eventually reaching zero. This family includes Swahili, the lingua franca in Africa, used by many to communicate as a second language, due to so many different native languages. At each location, somebody or some group seeks to establish the rules governing what happens in that space, â¦ Many disputes have been resolved through negotiations, but not all. Course Information Maps Data and Online Resources VPNs Apps Cornell Notes Essay guidelines Research Poster AP Exam Review Assignments. The political revolution that transformed Europe as a result of various actions that focused on ending continual warfare for the control of territory and introducing peaceful agreements that recognized the sovereignty of territory ruled by representative government structures. Dialect: Definition. 6 people chose this as the best definition of geography: The study of the earth an... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. CREATE AN ACCOUNT Create Tests & Flashcards. Colonialism is the control of previously uninhabited or sparsely inhabited land. Location theory, in economics and geography, theory concerned with the geographic location of economic activity; it has become an integral part of economic geography, regional science, and spatial economics. Since then, states have continued to grow more rational and bureaucratic, with expanding executive bureaucracies, such as the extensive cabinet system in the United States. A location claimed by a sovereign state is called a territory. Tilly examined the political, social, and technological change in Europe from the Middle Ages to the present and attempted to explain the unprecedented success of the nation-state as the dominant form of state on Earth. Thus, states have evolved from relatively simple but powerful central powers to sophisticated and highly organized institutions. CREATE AN ACCOUNT Create Tests & Flashcards. Controversies about territorial waters tend to encompass two dimensions: (a) territorial sovereignty, which is a legacy of history, and (b) relevant jurisdictional rights and interests in maritime boundaries, which are mainly due to differing interpretations of the law of the sea. However, there are many dozens of other similarly self-governing regions around the globe, most with names designating their status. Within the pluralist tradition, Robert Dahl developed the theory of the state as a neutral arena for contending interests. Any proposal to recognize Pakistani control over part or all of Kashmir would then provoke severe resistance from the Indian populace. If they want to speak their language or teach their specific religion in the local schools, then the central government allows local people to make those decisions. In our early history, Americans thought they were living in “The United Countries of America.”. Next he identified sites around the triangle that had lower labour costs than did the least-transport-cost location. According to one early theory of state formation, the centralized state was developed to administer large public works systems (such as irrigation systems) and to regulate complex economies. The pluralist approach suggests that the modern democratic state acts in response to pressures that are applied by a variety of related interests. built environment definition ap human geography, Seth Dixon's insight: In the 2017 APHG exam, there was a question that dealt with new urbanism and walkability. Why was the heartland so crucial at this time? A Form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages. Human & Cultural Geography: Definition, ... Upgrade to Premium to enroll in AP Human Geography: Exam Prep. Modern archaeological and anthropological evidence shows that many early societies were not as centralized, despotic, or unequal as the hydraulic theory would suggest. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/location-theory. Find the example listed on a political map and try to find one other state that has the same physical shape.
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