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perchlorate health effects

Perchlorate Human Health Effects Materials. Perchlorate Behavior in a Municipal Lake Following Fireworks Displays [185 KB] Perchlorate salts of potassium and ammonium are the primary oxidants in pyrotechnic mixtures, yet insufficient information is available regarding the relationship between fireworks displays and the environmental occurrence of perchlorate. They are very potent oxidizing agents; exposure may result in hemolysis with methemoglobin formation and secondary DIC. The Agency found that perchlorate may have an adverse effect on the health of persons and is known to occur in public drinking water systems with a frequency and at levels that present a public health concern. Iodide is an essential component in two hormones produced by the thyroid. Perchlorate is a known environmental contaminant, largely due to widespread military use as a propellant. Health Canada. This interference may lead to developmental defects. EPA then worked with the FDA to develop a dose-response model to analyze the effects of perchlorate on thyroid hormone production. Because some controversy surrounds the environmental and health effects of perchlorate, the National Research Council (NRC) was asked to assess potential adverse health effects of perchlorate ingestion. by Asha Srinivasan 1 and Thiruvenkatachari Viraraghavan 2,* 1. Perchlorate was first discovered to affect the thyroid 50 years ago, but only recently has research focused on its effects at low levels. Keywords: Perchlorate; Drinking Water; Toxicity; Health Effects; Treatment Technologies. Ginsberg G, Rice D. 2005 The NAS perchlorate review: questions remain about the perchlorate RfD Environ Health Perspect 113 1117–1119.111910.1289/ehp.8254. The California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) published an updated public health goal (PHG) of 1 part per billion (ppb) for perchlorate in drinking water in February 2015. Potassium Perchlorate CAS RN: 7778-74-7 Health Effects. 2. Here’s what you need to know about the health effects of perchlorate: What is perchlorate? The study also did not assess potential health effects of exposure. Joe Thomas , 2 Ponnu Jose 2 The health effects of perchlorate salts are due to the perchlorate itself and not to the other component (i.e., magnesium, ammonium, potassium, etc.). Key points with regard to comparative risk and risk management issues related to both ecological and human health effects will also be discussed. The updated PHG is lower because it incorporates new research about the effects of perchlorate on infants. Perchlorate is used in a variety of industrial products including missile fuel, fireworks, and fertilizers, and industrial contamination of drinking water supplies has occurred in a number of areas. Using data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, subjects were categorized into exposure groups based on their urinary perchlorate, iodine, and thiocyanate concentrations, and mean serum thyroxine concentrations were compared between groups. Manju , 9 Shaiju Param , 10 M. G. Rajamanickam , 11 U.G Unnikrishnan 12 et al. A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE . In the first and second editions, these constituted Volume 2 of the GDWQ. The following chronic (long-term) health effects can occur at some time after exposure to Potassium Perchlorate and can last for months or years: Cancer Hazard * According to the information presently available to the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Potassium Perchlorate has not been tested for its ability to cause cancer in animals. For perchlorate in drinking water, as with any other substance, it is the amount of exposure (the dose) that matters in assessing possible adverse effects. Perchlorate is measured in environmental samples primarily by ion chromatography. Perchlorate is a naturally occurring and manmade chemical that can affect the functioning of the thyroid gland at sufficiently high doses. Perchlorate Health Effects. Top of Page . Human Health. Environmental Health Perspectives is an Open Access journal published by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. This updates the previous California PHG of 6 ppb perchlorate, which was set in 2004. Perchlorate is an environmental contaminant that blocks iodine/iodide uptake into the thyroid gland (1). perchlorate potent competitive inhibitor of thyroid sodium-iodide symporter. This review aimed to evaluate whether environmental levels of perchlorate are sufficient to cause the most sensitive adverse health effects. A short overview of the human health effects issues related to exposure to perchlorate will also be presented. Perchlorate affects the ability of the thyroid gland to take up iodine, an important chemical needed to make hormones that regulate many body functions after they are released into the blood. Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2, Canada. The potential toxicity of perchlorate in humans is currently under widespread debate. The perchlorate anion is biologically significant specifically with respect to the functioning of the thyroid gland. Iodine, an essential nutrient, is necessary for the synthesis of the thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). For all of these reasons, this study does not change CDC’s existing recommendations for infant feeding. In “Health Effects Assessment for Environmental Perchlorate Contamination,” by Greer et al. Yes, perchlorate may have adverse health effects above certain exposure levels. Perchlorate exposure at certain levels can disrupt the function of the thyroid gland by interfering with the iodide uptake and thyroid hormone production. A) Very little information is available on the toxicity of ammonium perchlorate. non-cancer health effects over a specified duration of exposure (ATSDR 2008, 2016). Perchlorate exposure occurs from ingestion of natural or man-made perchlorate in food or water. and presenting critical reviews and evaluations of the effects on human health of the substances or contaminants of potential health concern in drinking-water. I first learned about perchlorate a number of years ago when reading Dr. David Brownstein's well known book "Iodine, Why You Need It, Why You Can't Live Without It". In 2011, EPA determined that perchlorate meets the Safe Drinking Water Act criteria for regulation as a contaminant. Possible Effects of Perchlorate Contamination of Drinking Water on Thyroid Health Sunny P Orathel , 1 Ronnie Thomas , 2 N. Chandramohanakumar , 3 Joy Job Kulavelil , 4 Krishnapillai Girish Kumar , 5 Vadayath Usha Menon , 6 P. Jayaprakash , 7 Sajitha Krishnan , 8 P.S. For example, too much vitamin C, or even too much oxygen, can be “toxic” at high doses, but the mere presence of these compounds doesn’t mean they pose a health risk. @ high doses (70,000–300,000 ppb) administration of potassium perchlorate considered standard of care in united states, , remains approved pharmacologic intervention many countries. Perchlorate exerts its effects by competing with iodide at the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the transport system that transports iodine into the thyroid gland. Perchlorate in Water Supplies: Sources, Exposures, and Health Effects Craig M. Steinmaus1 Published online: 30 March 2016 # Springer International Publishing AG 2016 Abstract Perchlorate exposure occurs from ingestion of nat-ural or man-made perchlorate in food or water. Biological and chemical processes are also effective in removing this species from water. In a 2004 report, the NRC confirmed that perchlorate blocks iodide uptake by the thyroid. It can be removed from water by anion exchange or membrane filtration. Hypothyroidism may occur following chronic exposures. Identified associations between increasing urinary perchlorate and decreasing thyroxine, decreasing free thyroxine, and increasing thyroid stimulating hormone. This agent is an irritant of eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Largest study to date of perchlorate during pregnancy and maternal serum thyroid hormone levels. To determine the health effects of perchlorate in humans, fairly extensive animal toxicity studies have been conducted. In addition to the detrimental effects this toxin can have on thyroid health, in his book Dr. Brownstein also discussed … It is also noted that perchlorate can cross the placenta of guinea pigs, and may possibly produce goiter in the fetus. Subjects with high perchlorate (n=1939) had thyroxine concentrations that were 5.0% lower (mean … ACUTE EXPOSURE . What are the Human Health Effects of Perchlorate? thus, has been used treat hyperthyroidism since 1950s. [EHP 110:927–937 (2002)], the triangle and diamond symbols in the key were transposed. health effects thyroid inhibition. 0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE. 2015. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1409614. The amounts of perchlorate used in these animal studies are huge, relative to potential human exposure. Side effects of perchlorate are classified into three groups: Minor, including incidences of drug rashes, drug fever, lymphadenopathy, and nausea; Agranulocytosis with severe cases of nephrotic syndrome; and aplastic anemia (low incidence).

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